Execution and Design of an Anti HPIV-1 Vaccine with Multiple Epitopes Triggering Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses: An Immunoinformatic Approach
Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) Type-1, which is an anti-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus belonging to the paramyxoviridae family, induces upper and lower respiratory tract infec-tions. The infections caused by the HPIV Type-1 virus are usually confined to northwestern regions of America. HPIV-1 causes infections through the virulence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, which plays a key role in the attachment of the viral particle with the host’s receptor cells. To the best of our knowledge, there is no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines being developed to combat the infection caused by HPIV-1. In the current study, a multiple epitope-based vaccine was designed against HPIV-1 by taking the viral HN protein as a probable vaccine candidate. The multiple epitopes were selected in accordance with their allergenicity, antigenicity and toxicity scor-ing. The determined epitopes of the HN protein were connected simultaneously using specific con-jugates along with an adjuvant to construct the subunit vaccine, with an antigenicity score of 0.6406. The constructed vaccine model was docked with various Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) and was com-putationally cloned in a pET28a (+) vector to analyze the expression of vaccine sequence in the biological system. Immune stimulations carried out by the C-ImmSim Server showed an excellent re-sult of the body’s defense system against the constructed vaccine model. The AllerTop tool predicted that the construct was non-allergen with and without the adjuvant sequence, and the VaxiJen 2.0 with 0.4 threshold predicted that the construct was antigenic, while the Toxinpred predicted that the construct was non-toxic. Protparam results showed that the selected protein was stable with 36.48 instability index (II) scores. The Grand average of Hydropathicity or GRAVY score indicated that the constructed protein was hydrophilic in nature. Aliphatic index values (93.53) confirmed that the construct was thermostable. This integrated computational approach shows that the constructed vaccine model has a potential to combat laryngotracheobronchitis infections caused by HPIV-I.
University of Central Punjab