Stationary localised patterns without Turing instability
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences
Since the pioneering work of Turing, it has been known that diffusion can destablise a homogeneous solution that is stable in the underlying model in the absence of diffusion. The destabilisation of the homogeneous solutions leads to the generation of patterns. In recent years, techniques have been developed to analyse so-called localised spatial structures. These are solutions in which the spatial structure occurs in a localised region. Unlike Turing patterns, they do not spread out across the whole domain. We investigate the existence of localised structures that occur in two predator-prey models. The functionalities chosen have been widely used in the literature. The existence of localised spatial structures has not investigated previously. Indeed, it is easy to show that these models cannot exhibit the Turing instability. This has perhaps led earlier researchers to conclude that interesting spatial solutions can therefore not occur for these models. The novelty of our paper is that we show the existence of stationary localised patterns in systems which do not undergo the Turing instability. The mathematical tools used are a combination of Linear and weakly nonlinear analysis with supporting numerical methods. By combining these methods, we are able to identify conditions for a wide range of increasing exotic behaviour. This includes the Belyckov-Devaney transition, a codimension two spatial instability point and the formation of localised patterns. The combination of spectral computations and numerical simulations reveals the crucial role played by the Hopf bifurcation in mediating the stability of localised spatial solutions. Finally, numerical solutions in two spatial dimensions confirms the onset of intricate spatio-temporal patterns within the parameter regions identified within one spatial dimension.
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