Production of long linear DNA substrates with site-specific chemical lesions for single-molecule replisome studies

Publication Name

Methods in Enzymology


Single-molecule imaging studies using long linear DNA substrates have revealed unanticipated insights into the dynamics of multi-protein systems. The use of long DNA substrates allows for the study of protein–DNA interactions with observation of the movement and behavior of proteins over distances accessible by fluorescence microscopy. Generalized methods can be exploited to generate and optimize a variety of linear DNA substrates with plasmid DNA as a simple starting point using standard biochemical techniques. Here, we present protocols to produce high-quality plasmid-based 36-kb linear DNA substrates that support DNA replication by the Escherichia coli replisome and that contain chemical lesions at well-defined positions. These substrates can be used to visualize replisome–lesion encounters at the single-molecule level, providing mechanistic details of replisome stalling and dynamics occurring during replication rescue and restart.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

National Institutes of Health



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