Introducing 4s–2p Orbital Hybridization to Stabilize Spinel Oxide Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Publication Name

Angewandte Chemie - International Edition


Oxides composed of an oxygen framework and interstitial cations are promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. However, the instability of the oxygen framework under harsh operating conditions results in fast battery capacity decay, due to the weak orbital interactions between cations and oxygen (mainly 3d–2p interaction). Here, a robust and endurable oxygen framework is created by introducing strong 4s–2p orbital hybridization into the structure using LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 oxide as an example. The modified oxide delivers extraordinarily stable battery performance, achieving 71.4 % capacity retention after 2000 cycles at 1 C. This work shows that an orbital-level understanding can be leveraged to engineer high structural stability of the anion oxygen framework of oxides. Moreover, the similarity of the oxygen lattice between oxide electrodes makes this approach extendable to other electrodes, with orbital-focused engineering a new avenue for the fundamental modification of battery materials.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council



Link to publisher version (DOI)