Personalising activity to target peak hyperglycaemia and improve cardiometabolic health in people with type 2 diabetes: protocol for a randomised controlled trial
INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity for glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) are well-known. However, whether established glycaemic and cardiovascular benefits can be maximised by exercising at a certain time of day is unknown. Given postprandial glucose peaks contribute to worsening glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and cardiovascular risk factors, and that exercise immediately lowers blood glucose, prescribing exercise at a specific time of day to attenuate peak hyperglycaemia may improve glycaemic control and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in people with T2D. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A single-centre randomised controlled trial will be conducted by the University of Wollongong, Australia. Individuals with T2D (n=70, aged 40-75 years, body mass index (BMI): 27-40 kg/m2) will be recruited and randomly allocated (1:1), stratified for sex and insulin, to one of three groups: (1) exercise at time of peak hyperglycaemia (ExPeak, personalised), (2) exercise not at time of peak hyperglycaemia (NonPeak) or (3) waitlist control (WLC, standard care). The trial will be 5 months, comprising an 8-week intervention and 3-month follow-up. Primary outcome is the change in HbA1c preintervention to postintervention. Secondary outcomes include vascular function (endothelial function and arterial stiffness), metabolic control (blood lipids and inflammation) and body composition (anthropometrics and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)). Tertiary outcomes will examine adherence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The joint UOW and ISLHD Ethics Committee approved protocol (2019/ETH09856) prospectively registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. Written informed consent will be obtained from all eligible individuals prior to commencement of the trial. Study results will be published as peer-reviewed articles, presented at national/international conferences and media reports. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619001049167.
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