A Novel Role for Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-2 as a Hypochlorite-Resistant Serine Protease Inhibitor and Holdase Chaperone
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2), a member of the serpin family, is dramatically upregulated during pregnancy and in response to inflammation. Although PAI-2 exists in glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms in vivo, the majority of in vitro studies of PAI-2 have exclusively involved the intracellular non-glycosylated form. This study shows that exposure to inflammation-associated hypochlorite induces the oligomerisation of PAI-2 via a mechanism involving dityrosine formation. Compared to plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), both forms of PAI-2 are more resistant to hypochlorite-induced inactivation of its protease inhibitory activity. Holdase-type extracellular chaperone activity plays a putative non-canonical role for PAI-2. Our data demonstrate that glycosylated PAI-2 more efficiently inhibits the aggregation of Alzheimer’s disease and preeclampsia-associated amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), compared to non-glycosylated PAI-2 in vitro. However, hypochlorite-induced modification of non-glycosylated PAI-2 dramatically enhances its holdase activity by promoting the formation of very high-molecular-mass chaperone-active PAI-2 oligomers. Both PAI-2 forms protect against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line in vitro. In the villous placenta, PAI-2 is localised primarily to syncytiotrophoblast with wide interpersonal variation in women with preeclampsia and in gestational-age-matched controls. Although intracellular PAI-2 and Aβ staining localised to different placental cell types, some PAI-2 co-localised with Aβ in the extracellular plaque-like aggregated deposits abundant in preeclamptic placenta. Thus, PAI-2 potentially contributes to controlling aberrant fibrinolysis and the accumulation of misfolded proteins in states characterised by oxidative and proteostasis stress, such as in Alzheimer’s disease and preeclampsia.
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Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development