The Molecular Characterization of Virulence Determinants and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Human Bacterial Uropathogens

Publication Name



The high rates of bacterial infections affect the economy worldwide by contributing to the increase in morbidity and treatment costs. The present cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infection in urinary tract infection (UTI) patients and to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rate (AMR) in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. The study was conducted for the period of one year from January 2020 to December 2020. A total of 1899 different clinical samples were collected and examined for bacterial cultures using standard procedures. Samples were inoculated on different culture media to isolate bacterial isolates and for identification and susceptibility testing. A total of 1107/1899 clinical samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacterial isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence was 16.93% from these positive cases. MRSA strains were found to be highly resistant to amikacin, clindamycin, fusidic acid, gentamicin and tobramycin, while highest sensitivity was noted against vancomycin (100%) and linezolid (100%). MRSA and high rates of multidrug resistance (MDR) pose a serious therapeutic burden to critically ill patients. A systematic and concerted effort is essential to rapidly identify high-risk patients and to reduce the burden of AMR.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access





Article Number


Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Taif University



Link to publisher version (DOI)