Ferroelectric crystals with giant electro-optic property enabling ultracompact Q-switches
Relaxor-lead titanate (PbTiO3) crystals, which exhibit extremely high piezoelectricity, are believed to possess high electro-optic (EO) coefficients. However, the optical transparency of relaxor-PbTiO3 crystals is severely reduced as a result of light scattering and reflection by domain walls, limiting electro-optic applications. Through synergistic design of a ferroelectric phase, crystal orientation, and poling technique, we successfully removed all light-scattering domain walls and achieved an extremely high transmittance of 99.6% in antireflection film–coated crystals, with an ultrahigh EO coefficient r33 of 900 picometers per volt (pm V−1), >30 times as high as that of conventionally used EO crystals. Using these crystals, we fabricated ultracompact EO Q-switches that require very low driving voltages, with superior performance to that of commercial Q-switches. Development of these materials is important for the portability and low driving voltage of EO devices.
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