Validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Patient readiness to engage in health information technology (PRE-HIT) instrument

Publication Name

BMC Primary Care


Background: The Patient readiness to engage in health information technology (PRE-HIT) is a conceptually and psychometrically validated questionnaire survey tool to measure willingness of patients with chronic conditions to use health information technology (HIT) resources. Objectives: This study aimed to translate and validate a health information technology readiness instrument, the PRE-HIT instrument, into the Persian language. Methods: A rigorous process was followed to translate the PRE-HIT instrument into the Persian language. The face and content validity was validated by impact score, content validity index (CVI) and content validity ratio (CVR). The instrument was used to measure readiness of 289 patients with chronic diseases to engage with digital health with a four point Likert scale. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to check the validity of structure. The convergent and discriminant validity, and internal reliability was expressed by average variance extracted (AVE), construct reliability (CR), maximum shared squared variance (MSV), average shared square variance (ASV), and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Independent samples, t-test and one-way ANOVA were used respectively to compare the impact of sex, education and computer literacy on the performance of all PRE-HIT factors. Results: Eight factors were extracted: health information needs, computer anxiety, computer/internet experience and expertise, preferred mode of interaction, no news is good news, relationship with doctor, cell phone expertise, and internet privacy concerns. They explained 69% of the total variance and the KMO value was 0.79; Bartlett's test of sphericity was also statistically significant (sig < 0.001). The communality of items was higher than 0.5. An acceptable model fit of the instrument was achieved (CFI = 0.943, TLI = 0.931, IFI = 0.944, GFI = 0.893, RMSEA ≤ 0.06, χ2/df = 1.625, df = 292, P-value ≤ 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient achieved a satisfactory level of 0.729. The AVE for all factors was higher than 0.50 except for PMI (0.427) and CIEE (0.463) and also the CR for all factors was higher than 0.7, therefore, the convergent validity of the instrument is adequate. The MSV and ASV values for each factor were lower than AVE values; therefore, the divergent validity was acceptable. Conclusion: The Persian version of the PRE-HIT was empirically proved for its validity to assess the level of readiness of patients to engage with digital health.

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Funding Sponsor

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences



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