Scoping review of the dietary intake of children with chronic kidney disease

Publication Name

Pediatric Nephrology


Background: Adequate nutrition is integral to optimal health outcomes for children with chronic kidney disease. However, no studies to date have summarised the existing knowledge base on the dietary intake of this patient group. Objective: Analyse and summarise evidence regarding the dietary intake of children with chronic kidney disease and identify areas that require further research or clarification. Methods: A scoping review of English language articles using four bibliographic databases and a predefined search term strategy. Weighted mean intake for each nutrient was calculated. Results: Eighteen studies were identified (1407 children and 118 healthy controls). Data on socioeconomic status, underreporting of intake and binder use was sparse. Most studies collected dietary information using food records or 24-h recalls. Nutrient data was missing for many subgroups especially transplant and dialysis patients. Protein intake was excessive in all groups where data was reported and varied from 125.7 ± 33% of the recommended dietary allowance in the severe disease group to 391.3 ± 383% in the group with mild kidney disease. Fibre, calcium, iron and vitamin C intake was inadequate for all groups. For children undertaking dialysis, none met the recommended dietary allowance for vitamins C, B1, B2, B3, B5 and B6. Sodium intake was excessive in all groups (> 220% of the recommended dietary allowance). Limited data suggests diet quality is poor, particularly fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions: This review has identified important subgroups of children with kidney disease where nutrient intake is suboptimal or not well described. Future studies should be conducted to describe intake in these groups. Graphical abstract: A higher-resolution version of the graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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