COVID-19 intranasal vaccines: current progress, advantages, prospects, and challenges
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
Multiple vaccines have recently been developed, and almost all the countries are presently vaccinating their population to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the COVID-19 vaccines in use are administered via intramuscular (IM) injection, eliciting protective humor and cellular immunity. COVID-19 intranasal (IN) vaccines are also being developed that have shown promising ability to induce a significant amount of antibody-mediated immune response and a robust cell-mediated immunity as well as hold the added ability to stimulate protective mucosal immunity along with the additional advantage of the ease of administration as compared to IM injected vaccines. By inducing secretory IgA antibody responses specifically in the nasal compartment, the intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine can prevent virus infection, replication, shedding, and disease development, as well as possibly limits virus transmission. This article highlights the current progress, advantages, prospects, and challenges in developing intranasal COVID-19 vaccines for countering the ongoing pandemic.
Open Access Status
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