Real World Challenges in Delivering Consumer Directed Care to Enhance Nursing Home Residents’ Well Being

Publication Name

Clinical Gerontologist


Objectives: The aim of this study was to use the ADKAR model of organizational change to gain an understanding of why a training program designed to equip staff with the skills to provide a Consumer Directed Care (CDC) model in nursing homes produced little change in the outcome variables, including resident quality of life. Methods: We collected and analyzed various forms of site-specific data including CDC implementation plans developed by staff trained in 21 facilities, and their training facilitators’ records. Results: Staff trained in the principles of CDC produced well-developed, facility-specific plans to introduce a CDC model of care, yet they faced many barriers to the implementation of these plans. These barriers were spread across multiple stages of the ADKAR model and included staff turnover (including managers), lack of engagement by management, lack of or inconsistent availability of a CDC champion, and disruptions to the training program. Conclusions: We identified several organizational factors contributing to the failure of the training program to produce anticipated changes. Clinical Implications: Without organizational commitment and full management support, attempts to implement CDC training programs are likely to fail, leading to negative consequences for residents’ autonomy and control over how they are cared for.

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