A randomized controlled study of remote computerized cognitive, neurofeedback, and combined training in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
There is an increasing interest in non-pharmacological treatments for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), especially digital techniques that can be remotely delivered, such as neurofeedback (NFT) and computerized cognitive training (CCT). In this study, a randomized controlled design was used to compare training outcomes between remotely delivered NFT, CCT, and combined NFT/CCT training approaches. A total of 121 children with AD/HD were randomly assigned to the NFT, CCT, or NFT/CCT training groups, with 80 children completing the training program. Pre- and post-training symptoms (primary outcome), executive and daily functions were measured using questionnaires as well as resting EEG during eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) conditions. After 3 months of training, the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, inhibition, working memory, learning and life skills of the three groups of children were significantly improved. The objective EEG activity showed a consistent increase in the relative alpha power in the EO condition among the three training groups. Training differences were not observed between groups. There was a positive correlation between pre-training EO relative alpha power and symptom improvement scores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, as well as a negative correlation between pre-training inattention scores and change in EO relative alpha. This study verified the training effects of NFT, CCT, and combined NFT/CCT training in children with AD/HD and revealed an objective therapeutic role for individual relative alpha activity. The verified feasibility and effectiveness of home-based digital training support promotion and application of digital remote training.
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National Natural Science Foundation of China