A randomized controlled study of remote computerized cognitive, neurofeedback, and combined training in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Publication Name

European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry


There is an increasing interest in non-pharmacological treatments for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), especially digital techniques that can be remotely delivered, such as neurofeedback (NFT) and computerized cognitive training (CCT). In this study, a randomized controlled design was used to compare training outcomes between remotely delivered NFT, CCT, and combined NFT/CCT training approaches. A total of 121 children with AD/HD were randomly assigned to the NFT, CCT, or NFT/CCT training groups, with 80 children completing the training program. Pre- and post-training symptoms (primary outcome), executive and daily functions were measured using questionnaires as well as resting EEG during eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) conditions. After 3 months of training, the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, inhibition, working memory, learning and life skills of the three groups of children were significantly improved. The objective EEG activity showed a consistent increase in the relative alpha power in the EO condition among the three training groups. Training differences were not observed between groups. There was a positive correlation between pre-training EO relative alpha power and symptom improvement scores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, as well as a negative correlation between pre-training inattention scores and change in EO relative alpha. This study verified the training effects of NFT, CCT, and combined NFT/CCT training in children with AD/HD and revealed an objective therapeutic role for individual relative alpha activity. The verified feasibility and effectiveness of home-based digital training support promotion and application of digital remote training.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

National Natural Science Foundation of China



Link to publisher version (DOI)