Predictors of contracting COVID-19 in nursing homes: Implications for clinical practice

Publication Name

Journal of Advanced Nursing


Aims: The aim of the study was to identify the predictors of contracting COVID-19 among older people in nursing homes in Iran. Design: A case–control study. Methods: Four-hundred-nine nursing home residents aged 60 years and above, with a 1:2 ratio of those infected with SARS-CoV-2 to those not infected, from six nursing homes in Tehran between 25 March and 12 July 2021 were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire comprising demographic and underlying disease questions, practice about prevention principles of SARS-CoV-2 infection, probably predisposing factors of the infection, and environmental and staff characteristic of nursing homes. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors associated with contracting COVID-19. Results: The mean age was 77.37 (±9.20) years; 54% were female. A logistic regression model showed that the most important predictors of becoming infected by SARS-CoV-2 included not using mask outside the room (odds ratio [OR]: 3.37, 95% CI: 1.74–6.53), longer staff shifts (OR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.68–5.43), using cloth mask or not wearing a mask (OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.13–5.42) and not having glass barrier in visitors space (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.11–3.50). Conclusion: The results indicate that an increase in older people becoming infected by SARS-CoV-2 in nursing homes is probably because of not wearing a mask in common places, use of a cloth mask, longer staff shift durations and not having a glass shield when interacting with visitors from outside of nursing homes. Impact: The predictors identified in this study can assist in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infections in older people institutionalized in nursing homes. These data items can also inform the development of interventions to improve principles of infection prevention and control.

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