Step Length Estimation Using the RSSI Method in Walking and Jogging Scenarios

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In this paper, human step length was estimated based on wireless channel properties and the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) method. Path loss between two ankles of the person under test was converted from the RSSI, which was measured using our developed wearable transceivers with embedded micro-controllers in four scenarios, namely indoor walking, outdoor walking, indoor jogging, and outdoor jogging. For brevity, we call it on-ankle path loss. The histogram of the on-ankle path loss showed clearly that there were two humps, where the second hump was closely related to the maximum path loss, which, in turn, corresponded to the step length. This histogram can be well approximated by a two-term Gaussian fitting curve model. Based on the histogram of the experimental data and the two-term Gaussian fitting curve, we propose a novel filtering technique to filter out the path loss outliers, which helps set up the upper and lower thresholds of the path loss values used for the step length estimation. In particular, the upper threshold was found to be on the right side of the second Gaussian hump, and its value was a function of the mean value and the standard deviation of the second Gaussian hump. Meanwhile, the lower threshold lied on the left side of the second hump and was determined at the point where the survival rate of the measured data fell to 0.68, i.e., the cumulative distribution function (CDF) approached 0.32. The experimental data showed that the proposed filtering technique resulted in high accuracy in step length estimation with errors of only 10.15 mm for the indoor walking, 4.40 mm for the indoor jogging, 4.81 mm for the outdoor walking, and 10.84 mm for the outdoor jogging scenarios, respectively.

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