An Investigative Analysis of the Protection Performance of Unbalanced Distribution Networks with Higher Concentration of Distributed Energy Resources

Publication Name

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications


Despite the substantial reliability and power quality improvements, the proliferation of distributed energy resources (DERs) can introduce many protection complexities in distribution networks. This research article presents a comprehensive investigative analysis of the distributed generation (DG) impacts on the protection performance of the distribution network. Various protection coordination case studies have been analyzed under different operating conditions by varying the DG penetration level or the fault conditions to highlight the potential risks of the protection networks. The severity of the risks is evaluated by considering the DG locations, protection settings, and fault types/impedance parameters on a standardized IEEE 13 node test feeder. The subsequent protection hazards are examined for the mutual coordination of the overcurrent (OC) relays, auto-reclosers, and series fuses in distribution networks along with the differential protection issues for DC bus system. Furthermore, the impacts of DGs/PDs types are assessed on the nuisance tripping of the protection networks and results are reported.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access



Link to publisher version (DOI)