Tribological Properties of Different‐Sized Black Phosphorus Nanosheets as Water‐Based Lubrication Additives for Steel/Titanium Alloy Wear Contact

Publication Name



Titanium alloys are extensively used in the aerospace, chemical, and biomedical industries. However, it has always been a challenge in the manufacturing and machining of titanium alloys because they exhibit poor friction and wear characteristics, which results in serious problems and significantly restricts their further production and application. Therefore, in the present study, the wear contact between GCr15 steel and Ti6Al4V alloy is specifically studied by considering black phosphorus nanosheets (BP‐NS) as water‐based lubrication additives, which is expected to have a great potential application in manufacturing and machining titanium alloys. The influence of BP nanosheet size on the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear rate of Ti6Al4V alloy has been comprehensively studied, based on comparisons among adding large BP nanosheets (L‐BP) (2–4 μm), me-dium BP nanosheets (M‐BP) (300–500 nm), and black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs) (6–10 nm). Compared with ultrapure water, the COF and wear rate of Ti6Al4V alloy are reduced by 42.4% and 82.3%, respectively, when BPQDs are used as water‐based lubrication additives. This paper also shows that a lower COF and wear rate is achieved with the addition of BPQDs than the other two BP nanosheet sizes. Derived from the friction tests and worn surface analysis of Ti6Al4V alloy, lubrication mechanisms of different‐sized BP lubricants were proposed. The interlaminar shearing between BP‐NS and the adsorbed films were the main mechanisms for L‐BP and M‐BP lubricants, while the adsorption, repair, and ball‐bearing effects were mainly presented in the BPQD lubricants. The discoveries in this paper would be beneficial to developing novel lubricants for the manufacturing and machining of titanium alloys.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access





Article Number


Funding Number




Link to publisher version (DOI)