A Phosphonated Poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) Derivative with Low Oxidation Potential for Energy-Efficient Bioelectronic Devices

Publication Name

Chemistry of Materials


Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) for bioelectronic applications require the design of conjugated polymers that are stable in aqueous environments and afford high energy efficiency and good performance in OECTs. Polymers based on poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) are promising in this area due to their low oxidation potential and reversible redox, but they often require cross-linking to prevent dissolution and yield OECTs operating in the less efficient depletion mode. In this work, a new conjugated polymer PEDOT-Phos is presented, which combines a conjugated poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) backbone with alkyl-protected phosphonate groups. PEDOT-Phos exhibits a low oxidation onset potential (-0.157 V vs Ag/AgCl) and its nanoporous morphology affords it a high volumetric capacitance (282 ± 62 F cm-3). Without any cross-linking, additives, or post-treatment, PEDOT-Phos can be used in aqueous OECTs with efficient accumulation mode operation, long-term stability when immersed in aqueous media, low threshold voltages (-0.161 ± 0.005 V), good transconductances (9.3 ± 1.8 mS), and ON/OFF current ratios (618 ± 54) comparable to other PEDOT-based materials in OECTs. These results highlight the great promise of PEDOT-Phos as a stand-alone channel material for energy-efficient, bioelectronic devices.

Open Access Status

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Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council



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