Advancements in detection and removal of antibiotic resistance genes in sludge digestion: A state-of-art review

Publication Name

Bioresource Technology


Sludge from wastewater treatment plants can act as a repository and crucial environmental provider of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Over the past few years, people's knowledge regarding the occurrence and removal of ARGs in sludge has broadened remarkably with advancements in molecular biological techniques. Anaerobic and aerobic digestion were found to effectively achieve sludge reduction and ARGs removal. This review summarized advanced detection and removal techniques of ARGs, in the last decade, in the sludge digestion field. The fate of ARGs due to different sludge digestion strategies (i.e., anaerobic and aerobic digestion under mesophilic or thermophilic conditions, and in combination with relevant pretreatment technologies (e.g., thermal hydrolysis pretreatment, microwave pretreatment and alkaline pretreatment) and additives (e.g., ferric chloride and zero-valent iron) were systematically summarized and compared in this review. To date, this is the first review that provides a comprehensive assessment of the state-of-the-art technologies and future recommendations

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Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council



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