Correlates of intimate partner violence in Bhutan: Evidence from the 2012 National Health Survey

Publication Name

Journal of Health Research


Purpose: This paper is to examine the factors associated with partner violence (IPV) in Bhutan. Design/methodology/approach: The nationally representative National Health Survey data conducted in 2012 was used. The survey included 12,210 women aged 15–75 years. Multiple logistic regression accounting for complex survey design was performed to assess the possible association of the putative factors with physical, sexual, psychological and any IPV experienced in the past 12 months before the survey. Findings: Alcohol consumption, quarrelling habits and extramarital relationships of husbands/partners were associated with the experience of all types and any IPV. Women performing household chores had increased odds of sexual and any IPV, and those whose husbands had low education levels were more likely to experience physical IPV. Women living in households with >9 members had reduced odds of physical and any IPV. Women married to older husbands/partners were less likely to be psychologically abused. Women from poorer wealth quintiles and who married before reaching 18 years of age also had greater odds of any IPV. Originality/value: Poor relationship quality, alcohol use, household size, low education, early marriage, poor wealth status and husband’s age were factors associated with one or more types of IPV in Bhutan. Interventions to reduce alcohol use, transform social norms, promote healthy relationships and enhance female empowerment through socio-economic programs may help prevent IPV.

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