The modulation of the discharge plateau of benzoquinone for sodium-ion batteries
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials
p-Benzoquinone (BQ) is a promising candidate for next-generation sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of its high theoretical specific capacity, good reaction reversibility, and high resource availability. However, practical application of BQ faces many challenges, such as a low discharge plateau (∼2.7 V) as cathode material or a high discharge plateau as anode material compared with inorganic materials for SIBs and high solubility in organic electrolytes, resulting in low power and energy densities. Here, tetrahydroxybenzoquinone tetrasodium salt (Na4C6O6) is synthesized through a simple neutralization reaction at low temperatures. The four −ONa electron-donating groups introduced on the structure of BQ greatly lower the discharge plateau by over 1.4 V from ∼2.70 V to ∼1.26 V, which can change BQ from cathode to anode material for SIBs. At the same time, the addition of four −ONa hydrophilic groups inhibits the dissolution of BQ in the organic electrolyte to a certain extent. As a result, Na4C6O6 as the anode displays a moderate discharge capacity and cycling performance at an average work voltage of ∼1.26 V versus Na/Na+. When evaluated as a Na-ion full cell (NIFC), a Na3V2(PO4)3 ‖ Na4C6O6 NIFC reveals a moderate discharge capacity and an average discharge plateau of ∼1.4 V. This research offers a new molecular structure design strategy for reducing the discharge plateau and simultaneously restraining the dissolution of organic electrode materials.
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National Natural Science Foundation of China