Gut microbiome responses to dietary intake of grain-based fibers with the potential to modulate markers of metabolic disease: a systematic literature review
CONTEXT: Cereal fiber modulates the gut microbiome and benefits metabolic health. The potential link between these effects is of interest.0. OBJECTIVE: The aim for this systematic review was to assess evidence surrounding the influence of cereal fiber intake on microbiome composition, microbiome diversity, short-chain fatty acid production, and risk factors for metabolic syndrome. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: The MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically, and quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. Evidence relating to study design, dietary data collection, and outcomes was qualitatively synthesized on the basis of fiber type. DATA ANALYSIS: Forty-six primary publications and 2 secondary analyses were included. Cereal fiber modulated the microbiome in most studies; however, taxonomic changes indicated high heterogeneity. Short-chain fatty acid production, microbiome diversity, and metabolic-related outcomes varied and did not always occur in parallel with microbiome changes. Poor dietary data were a further limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Cereal fiber may modulate the gut microbiome; however, evidence of the link between this and metabolic outcomes is limited. Additional research is required with a focus on robust and consistent methodology. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42018107117.
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