Well-to-wheel analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption for electric vehicles: A comparative study in Oceania

Publication Name

Energy Policy


Electric Vehicles (EVs) are regarded as a feasible solution to achieving decarbonisation in the transportation sector. However, EVs powered by fossil dominated energy sources may offer a discounted solution. This paper presents a comparative study of Australian and New Zealand's vehicle markets on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption using well-to-wheel analysis. A vehicle uptake projection model is proposed to predict future uptake of EVs and associated emissions under three scenarios with different mix of EVs. Our empirical results suggest that, with the current electricity mix, in terms of energy consumption, Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) perform better than other types in New Zealand and Australia. Emission wise, BEVs emit 90% less GHG than the second-best option Plug-in EV in New Zealand, and 40% less than the second-best, Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs), in Australia. In the long run, as more “green hydrogen” is produced, FCEVs will play a critical role in minimising emissions. Emissions in the two countries are predicted to reach their peak around 2030, provided that BEVs form the major portion of the EV mix with a higher penetration of renewables and more FCEVs enter the fleet. The empirical outcomes provide important policy insights to support decision making.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access



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Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment



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