Time-use and spatio-temporal variables influence on physical activity intensity, physical and social health of travelers

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Sustainability (Switzerland)


Using a multi-dimensional three-week household time-use and activity diary, this study aims to investigate the interaction between time-use and activity travel participation, built environment, leisure-time physical activity, travel parameters, and physical intensity on physical and social health. The relationship between time-use and activity travel participation is complex. Therefore, physical activity (PA) intensity is assumed to intermediate the relationship between endogenuous and exogenous variables. This study use a comprehensive set of data that was collected at a household level for twenty-one (21) consecutive days. A total of 732 individuals and 191 households were recorded, representing 0.029% total population of Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA). The data analyzed with descriptive and linear regression analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 26.0.0 software (IBM: Armonk, NY, USA). An advanced model, such as the hierarchical Structural Equation Model (SEM), is used to validate the relationship between activity patterns and health parameters. The estimated results indicate that a minute increase in public transport mode has an 8.8% positive correlation with physical health and 9.0% with social health. Furthermore, an increase in the one-minute duration of in-home maintenance and out-of-home leisure activities are positively correlated by 2.9% and 3.2%, respectively, with moderate-intensity PA and by 4.5% and 1.8% strenuous-intensity PA. Additionally, high accessibility and availability of basic amenities at a walkable distance and using auxiliary time in social activities are significantly correlated with better physical and social health. Moreover, this study adopted multidisciplinary approaches for better transport policy and a healthier society with a better quality of life.

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Funding Sponsor

King Saud University



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