Metal-based electrocatalysts for room-temperature Na-S batteries
Room-temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) batteries have recently captured intensive research attention from the community and are regarded as one of promising next-generation energy storage devices since they not only integrate the advantages in high abundance and low commercial cost of elemental Na/S but also exhibit exceptionally high theoretical capacity and energy density. Whereas, the notorious shuttle effect of soluble intermediates and sluggish kinetics remain two main obstacles for RT Na-S batteries to step into new developmental stage. Recently, impressive advancements of metal-based electrocatalysts have offered a viable solution to stabilize S cathodes and unlocked new opportunities for RT Na-S batteries. Here, we underline the recent progress on metal-based electrocatalysts for RT Na-S batteries for the first time by shedding light on this emerging but promising field. The involved metal-based electrocatalysts include metals, metal oxides, metal sulfides, metal carbides, and other metal-based catalytic species. Our emphasis is focused on the discussion of design, fabrication, and properties of these electrocatalysts as well as interactions between electrocatalysts and sodium polysulfides. Otherwise, some potential electrocatalysts for RT Na-S batteries are pointed out as well. At last, perspectives for the future development of RT Na-S batteries with S cathode electrocatalysts are offered.
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