Title

DSM-5 Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Sex Differences in EEG Activity

Publication Name

Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback

Abstract

This study examined sex differences in the EEG of adults diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) according to DSM-5 criteria. Sixteen females and 16 males with AD/HD, and age- and sex-matched control groups, had an eyes-closed resting EEG recorded from 19 electrode sites. EEGs were Fast Fourier transformed and estimates for total power, absolute and relative power in the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands, and the theta/beta ratio, were analysed across nine cortical regions. Males with AD/HD, compared with male controls, had globally reduced absolute beta, globally elevated relative theta, and a larger theta/beta ratio. In contrast, no global effects emerged between females with and without AD/HD. Significant group interactions indicated that globally elevated relative theta and elevated frontal-midline theta/beta ratio noted in males with AD/HD differed significantly from results in females. There are statistically significant EEG differences in relative theta and the theta/beta ratio between males and females with and without AD/HD. These results indicate that AD/HD affects the EEG activity of males and females differently. This study helps confirm the need for further independent examination of AD/HD within female populations.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Volume

46

Issue

4

First Page

377

Last Page

388

Funding Number

DP0987232

Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council

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Link to publisher version (DOI)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-021-09522-2