A Systematic Review of Handgrip Strength Measurement in Clinical and Epidemiological Studies of Kidney Disease: Toward a Standardized Approach

Publication Name

Journal of Renal Nutrition


In chronic kidney disease (CKD), handgrip strength (HGS) is recommended as a surrogate measure of protein-energy status and functional status. However, it is not routinely used because of inconsistencies such as the optimal timing of the HGS measurement and unclear guidance regarding technique. We aimed to determine the extent of variation in the protocols and methods of HGS assessment. We aimed to identify clinical and epidemiological studies conducted on CKD that reported on the use of HGS as an outcome. A systematic literature search identified n = 129 studies with a total participant population of n = 35,192. We identified large variations in all aspects of the methodology including body and arm position, repetitions, rest time, timing, familiarization, and how scores were calculated. The heterogeneous methodologies used reinforce the need to standardize HGS measurement. After reviewing previously employed methodology in the literature, we propose a comprehensive HGS assessment protocol for use in CKD.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Funding Sponsor

NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre



Link to publisher version (DOI)