Climate Change-Induced Natural Hazard: Population Displacement, Settlement Relocation, and Livelihood Change Due to Riverbank Erosion in Bangladesh
Human migration is one of the worst possible effects triggered by riverbank erosion. Riverbank erosion is a frequent event in Bangladesh, with severe consequences such as land loss and forced migration. This research is intended to understand the process and pattern of human migration due to riverbank erosion at a small administrative unit of a coastal District Bhola located in the Meghna estuary in Bangladesh. This study was conducted on the basis of primary data following a mixed-methods approach. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey and focus group discussion (FGD). In this paper, we argue that riverbank erosion has a long-term impact on livelihood security of displaced people. A significant portion of migrants have changed their livelihood occupation. The displaced people have shifted their shelter to live in road-come-embankment (A road-come-embankment is a thick wall of earth that is built to carry a road or railway over an area of low ground, or to prevent water from a river or the sea from flooding the area. They climbed a steep embankment), annually leased land, and “housing without rent for humanity” provided by the local government. Displaced people have scattered all over the study area as well as nearby and adjoining higher administrative units as in-migrants. People have also migrated to large cities such as Dhaka and nearby towns to seek employment. The research would be beneficial for conducting further study on forced migration on a larger scale in more dynamic riparian areas.
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