Self-healing bioconcrete based on non-axenic granules: A potential solution for concrete wastewater infrastructure

Publication Name

Journal of Water Process Engineering


This paper summarized the metabolic pathways, mechanisms, and performance of various microbial induced calcite precipitation (MICP) microorganisms as self-healing agents for the development of self-healing bioconcrete. Despite the remarkable progress achieved to date, the high costs involved in the cultivation and encapsulation of the axenic cultures have led to a shift of research focus towards the use of non-axenic microbial cultures. They have superior benefits as self-healing agents in terms of easy cultivation and low cost. Granular sludge was widely used in wastewater treatment. Considering the high need for concrete-based wastewater infrastructure, granular sludge cultivated using wastewater has the potential to develop bioconcrete for sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants. To achieve large-scale application, future research should enhance the understanding of the long-term performances and develop systematic and comparable evaluation methods.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access



Article Number


Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council



Link to publisher version (DOI)