The antenatal risk questionnaire-revised: Development, use and test-retest reliability in a community sample of pregnant women in Australia

Publication Name

Journal of Affective Disorders


Background: Routine psychosocial assessment during pregnancy and the first postnatal year is a public health strategy that prioritises early identification of known risk factors for poor perinatal mental health. We aimed to report on the development and use of the Antenatal Risk Questionnaire-Revised (ANRQ-R), contribute normative data for a community sample of pregnant women and examine its test-retest reliability. Methods: The ANRQ-R was developed in consultation with an expert advisory group. Women completed the ANRQ-R with their midwife at their first antenatal appointment. Test-retest analysis was restricted to women who consented to follow-up and completed a repeat ANRQ-R within four weeks. Results: 7183 women completed the ANRQ-R (total score M = 12.05, Mdn=10; range =5–49). There were some statistically significant differences in total score across maternal age group (χ2=69.75, p<.001), country of birth (χ2=144.01, p<.001) and socioeconomic quintiles (χ2=20.13, p<.001), however the effect sizes of all differences were either small or not clinically significant. Test-retest reliability for the ANRQ-R total score was good (N = 1670; ICC=0.77). Item-level test-retest reliabilities were moderate to good (ICC range=0.65–0.80; kappa coefficient range=0.31–0.74). Limitations: The study was conducted at a single site. Although there was significant diversity in terms of maternal age and country of birth, the majority of participants were partnered and resided in socio-economically advantaged areas, limiting the generalisability of results. Conclusions: This study contributes significant normative data for the ANRQ-R and offers valuable insights for clinicians and researchers working with particular sub-groups of the perinatal population. Additional psychometric examination of the ANRQ-R, including its concurrent and predictive validity, is required.

Open Access Status

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Funding Sponsor

St John of God Health Care



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