The implementation of an emergency nursing framework (HIRAID) reduces patient deterioration: A multi-centre quasi-experimental study

Publication Name

International Emergency Nursing


Introduction: Timely recognition and treatment of acutely ill patients at appropriate levels of the health system are fundamental to the quality and safety of healthcare. This study determines if the implementation of an emergency nursing framework HIRAID (History, Identify Red flags, Assessment, Interventions, Diagnostics, communication and reassessment) improves patient safety. Methods: A quasi-experimental cohort study was conducted in two emergency departments in [Anonymised], Australia. HIRAID was implemented using a multi-pronged behaviour change intervention. Data of 920 patients (374 pre and 546 post) who deteriorated within 72-hours of ED departure were collected. Statistical tests were conducted as two-sided, with a 95% confidence interval to determine pre/post cohort association. Results: Patients in the post group had more comorbidities, but experienced less deterioration associated with care delivered in the ED (27% to 13%). There was a reduction in treatment delays [ 28.3% to 15.1%, p = 0.041, 95% CI (1.1%–25.3%)], and delay or failure to escalate care when abnormal vital signs were identified [20.2% to6.9%, p = 0.014, 95% CI (3.5%–23.1%)]. Isolated nursing-related causal factors decreased from 20 (21%) to 6 (8%). Conclusions: Implementing a standardised emergency nursing framework is associated with a reduction in clinical deterioration related to emergency care.

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Article Number


Funding Sponsor

Australian College of Nursing



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