Systematic evaluation of structure–property relationships and pharmacokinetics in 6-(hetero)aryl-substituted matched pair analogs of amiloride and 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride

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Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry


The K -sparing diuretic amiloride elicits anticancer activities in multiple animal models. During our recent medicinal chemistry campaign aiming to identify amiloride analogs with improved properties for potential use in cancer, we discovered novel 6-(hetero)aryl-substituted amiloride and 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA) analogs with up to 100-fold higher potencies than the parent compounds against urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), one of amiloride's putative anticancer targets, and no diuretic or antikaliuretic effects. Here, we report the systematic evaluation of structure–property relationships (lipophilicity, aqueous solubility and in vitro metabolic stability in human and mouse liver microsomes) in twelve matched pair analogs selected from our 6-substituted amiloride and HMA libraries. Mouse plasma stability, plasma protein binding, Caco-2 cell permeability, cardiac ion channel activity and pharmacokinetics in mice (PO and IV) and rats (IV) are described alongside amiloride and HMA comparators for a subset of the four most promising matched-pair analogs. The findings combined with earlier uPA activity/selectivity and other data ultimately drove selection of two analogs (AA1-39 and AA1-41) that showed efficacy in separate mouse cancer metastasis studies. +

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Health Research Council of New Zealand



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