Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 2020


R. E. Neale, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
P. W. Barnes, Loyola University New Orleans
T. M. Robson, Helsingin Yliopisto
P. J. Neale, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center
C. E. Williamson, Miami University
R. G. Zepp, United States Environmental Protection Agency
S. R. Wilson, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health
S. Madronich, National Center for Atmospheric Research
A. L. Andrady, NC State University
A. M. Heikkilä, Finnish Meteorological Institute
G. H. Bernhard, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.
A. F. Bais, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
P. J. Aucamp, Ptersa Environmental Consultants
A. T. Banaszak, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
J. F. Bornman, Murdoch University
L. S. Bruckman, Case Western Reserve University
S. N. Byrne, The University of Sydney
B. Foereid, The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
D. P. Häder, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
L. M. Hollestein, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute
W. C. Hou, National Cheng Kung University
S. Hylander, Linnaeus University, Kalmar
M. A.K. Jansen, University College Cork
A. R. Klekociuk, Australian Antarctic Division
J. B. Liley, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
J. Longstreth, Institute for Global Risk Research, LLC
R. M. Lucas, The Australian National University
J. Martinez-Abaigar, Universidad de La Rioja
K. McNeill, ETH Zürich
C. M. Olsen, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute
K. K. Pandey, Institute of Wood Science and Technology (IWST), Bangalore

Publication Name

Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences


This assessment by the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel (EEAP) of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provides the latest scientific update since our most recent comprehensive assessment (Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, 2019, 18, 595–828). The interactive effects between the stratospheric ozone layer, solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and climate change are presented within the framework of the Montreal Protocol and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. We address how these global environmental changes affect the atmosphere and air quality; human health; terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; biogeochemical cycles; and materials used in outdoor construction, solar energy technologies, and fabrics. In many cases, there is a growing influence from changes in seasonality and extreme events due to climate change. Additionally, we assess the transmission and environmental effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, in the context of linkages with solar UV radiation and the Montreal Protocol.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access





Funding Number

DEB 1754267

Funding Sponsor

National Science Foundation



Link to publisher version (DOI)