Facilitators and Barriers to Successful Revaccination after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation among Adult Survivors: A Scoping Review

Publication Name

Transplantation and Cellular Therapy


Post-transplantation revaccination uptake of childhood vaccines in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors is suboptimal, increasing the risk of infectious morbidity and mortality within this population. We systematically reviewed the literature for factors related to revaccination uptake, as well as the barriers and facilitators that affect successful revaccination. We conducted a scoping review searching PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and Web of Science in March 2023. Two independent reviewers performed study selection using the complete dual review process. Data were extracted using a standard form. Factors were characterized as demographic, clinical, or social determinants of health that affected revaccination uptake. Barriers and facilitators were categorized using the constructs from the World Health Organization Behavioural and Social Drivers Framework. Our searches yielded 914 sources, from which 15 publications were selected (5 original research and 10 quality improvement initiatives). More than one-half of the reports listed factors associated with poorer uptake, predominately clinical factors, followed by social determinants of health, then demographic factors. Nearly all the reports described barriers to successful revaccination uptake, with most of these falling into the “practical issues” construct. Most of the reports described facilitators, nearly all related to health care system improvements associated with improved revaccination uptake. Although this review provides a good starting point for understanding impediments to successful revaccination after HSCT, this review reveals that we lack sufficient evidence to drive targeted interventions to improve uptake. More research is needed, focusing on survivors’ voices to inform our knowledge of barriers and facilitators to complete revaccination after HSCT, exploring behavioral and social drivers within this population, and examining the care delivery models that may complicate vaccine delivery in this population.

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