Powering Implantable and Ingestible Electronics

Publication Name

Advanced Functional Materials


Implantable and ingestible biomedical electronic devices can be useful tools for detecting physiological and pathophysiological signals, and providing treatments that cannot be done externally. However, one major challenge in the development of these devices is the limited lifetime of their power sources. The state-of-the-art of powering technologies for implantable and ingestible electronics is reviewed here. The structure and power requirements of implantable and ingestible biomedical electronics are described to guide the development of powering technologies. These powering technologies include novel batteries that can be used as both power sources and for energy storage, devices that can harvest energy from the human body, and devices that can receive and operate with energy transferred from exogenous sources. Furthermore, potential sources of mechanical, chemical, and electromagnetic energy present around common target locations of implantable and ingestible electronics are thoroughly analyzed; energy harvesting and transfer methods befitting each energy source are also discussed. Developing power sources that are safe, compact, and have high volumetric energy densities is essential for realizing long-term in-body biomedical electronics and for enabling a new era of personalized healthcare.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

National Institutes of Health



Link to publisher version (DOI)