Copyright 2020 Zhao, Li, Wang, Luo, Han, Cao, Liu, Chen, Wang, Johnstone, Wang and Sun. Background: We investigated working memory (WM) processing in a longitudinal sample of young adults with persistent and remittent childhood-onset ADHD to investigate the neural correlates of working memory with adult outcomes of ADHD. Methods: Forty-seven young Chinese adults who had been diagnosed with ADHD during childhood underwent follow-up assessments for an average of 9 years. The ADHD sample consisted of 25 ADHD persisters (mean age =18.38 ± 0.5 years) and 22 remitters (mean age = 18.78 ± 1.10 years), who were compared with 25 sex ratio- and IQ-matched healthy adults (mean age = 19.60 ± 1.22 years) in a verbal n-back task. Results: No differences in behavioral measures were observed across the three groups. Compared with the healthy controls, the ADHD persisters and remitters had larger N1 amplitudes and smaller P2 amplitudes, while no significant differences between the persistence and remission groups were observed. The P3 amplitudes of the remission and control groups were higher than that of the persistence group, but there was no significant difference between the remitters and healthy controls. Conclusion: The P3 amplitudes reflecting postdecisional processing and/or WM updating were sensitive to ADHD remission, as they might improve concurrently with ADHD symptoms. These results indicate that the N1, P2, and P3 components of WM processing might be potential biomarkers for different ADHD outcomes.