Publication Details

Putra, I. & Januraga, P. (2020). Social capital and HIV testing uptake among indirect female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 5 (2),


2020 by the authors. Indirect female sex workers (FSWs), a type of FSW working under the cover of entertainment enterprises (e.g., karaoke lounge, bar, etc.), remain as an important key population for HIV transmission, signaling the need of appropriate interventions targeting HIV-related behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the association between social capital and HIV testing uptake. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 indirect FSWs in Denpasar, Bali. The dependent variable was HIV testing uptake in the last six months preceding the survey. The main independent variables were social capital constructs: social cohesion (perceived peer support and trust) and social participation. Variables of socio-demographic characteristics were controlled in this study to adjust the influence of social capital. Binary logistic regression was performed. The prevalence of HIV testing in the last six months was 72.50%. The multivariate analysis showed that only peer support from the social capital constructs was associated with HIV testing uptake. Indirect FSWs who perceived a high level of support within FSWs networks were 2.98-times (95% CI = 1.43-6.24) more likely to report for HIV testing. Meanwhile, perceived trust and social participation did not show significant associations in relation to HIV testing uptake. As social cohesion (support) within FSWs' relationships can play an important role in HIV testing uptake, existing HIV prevention programs should consider support enhancement to develop a sense of belonging and solidarity.



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