Resting state EEG power research in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A review update
2020 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology This article reviews the eyes-open and eyes-closed resting electroencephalogram (EEG) literature for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) from 2002 to 2019. This time has seen substantial increase in interest in resting state EEG, with investigations moving from a comparison of an AD/HD sample to a control group, to research investigating a wide range of theoretical and clinical aspects of the disorder. This has included investigations of subgroups based on their EEG profile, sex differences in the EEG, increasing interest in the EEG of adults, and the effects of comorbid disorders on the EEG of people with AD/HD. Research has further investigated the hyper- and hypo- arousal models of AD/HD, as well as the developmental deviation model. From a clinical perspective, a growing body of literature is emerging trying to ascertain if the EEG can be used as a diagnostic test, particularly the theta/beta ratio. While these advances have been made, there is widespread use of both the eyes-open and eyes-closed resting paradigms as being interchangeable, despite the two paradigms differ on a number of important factors. There is also lack of independent replication within the literature, which is needed to consolidate many of the findings that have been published.