Dietary antioxidants are associated with presence of intra- and sub-retinal fluid in neovascular age-related macular degeneration after 1 year
2020 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Purpose: To assess whether dietary intake of antioxidants, fruits, vegetables and fish is associated with 12-month treatment outcomes in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) patients. Methods: A total of 547 participants were diagnosed with nAMD at baseline, of whom 494 were followed up after 12 months of antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Dietary intakes were determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Presence of intra-retinal and sub-retinal fluid (IRF, SRF), pigment epithelial detachment (PED) and central macular thickness (CMT) were recorded from optical coherence tomography images. Best-corrected visual acuity was recorded using log of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (LogMAR) charts. Results: Participants in the upper three quartiles combined compared to those in the first quartile of baseline dietary zinc intake had 49% reduced odds of SRF 12 months later, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.51 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.89]. The upper three quartiles combined compared to the first quartile of β-carotene intake had 90% greater odds of IRF presence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable-adjusted OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.04-3.46). The highest versus lowest quartile of dietary β-carotene intake had a nearly twofold greater odds of PED presence, multivariable-adjusted OR 1.99 (95% CI 1.03-3.84). Conclusion: A higher intake of dietary zinc was associated with a reduced likelihood of SRF at 1 year. Conversely, a higher intake of dietary β-carotene was associated with an increased risk of IRF and PED. These findings underscore the importance of ongoing nutritional advice for nAMD patients presenting for treatment.