2019, 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Background: Early and objective prediction of functional outcome after stroke is an important issue in rehabilitation. Electroencephalography (EEG) has long been utilized to describe and monitor brain function following neuro-trauma, and technological advances have improved usability in the acute setting. However, skepticism persists whether EEG can provide the same prognostic value as neurological examination. Objective: The current cohort study examined the relationship between acute single-channel EEG and functional outcomes after stroke. Methods: Resting-state EEG recorded at a single left pre-frontal EEG channel (FP1) was obtained from 16 adults within 72 h of first stroke. At 30 and 90 days, measures of disability (modified Rankin Scale; mRS) and involvement in daily activities (modified Barthel Index; mBI) were obtained. Acute EEG measures were correlated with functional outcomes and compared to an early neurological examination of stroke severity using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Classification of good outcomes (mRS ≤1 or mBI ≥95) was also examined using Receiver Operator Curve analyses. Results: One-third to one-half of participants experienced incomplete post-stroke recovery, depending on the time point and measure. Functional outcomes correlated with acute theta values (rs 0.45-0.60), with the strength of associations equivalent to previously reported values obtained from conventional multi-channel systems. Acute theta values ≥0.25 were associated with good outcomes, with positive (67-83%) and negative predictive values (70-90%) comparable to those obtained using the NIHSS. Conclusions: Acute, single-channel EEG can provide unique, non-overlapping clinical information, which may facilitate objective prediction of functional outcome after stroke.
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