The effectiveness of patient activation intervention on type 2 diabetes mellitus glycemic control and self-management behaviors: A systematic review of RCTs
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is a major health challenge and associated with several complications and mortality. Self-management behaviors SMBs such as healthy diet, physical activity, blood glucose self-monitoring, foot care and medication adherence are critical part of diabetic care. Empowered or activated patients, are more likely to practice better SMBs. However, the effectiveness of patient activation intervention on T2DM glycemic control and SMBs is not totally well understood.
Aim: To assess the effectiveness of patient activation intervention on T2DM glycemic control and SMBs.
Method: A systematic search was undertaken through five databases to find relevant studies published between 2004 and 2018. We included randomized controlled trials with sample size ≥120 and follow up period of ≥12 months and assess the effectiveness of patient activation intervention on T2DM glycemic control and SMBs.
Results: 10 RCTs were identified for analysis. The total sample size is 3728 and the combined mean age is 57.3 years. The combined mean BMI is 31.2 kg/m2 (obese). Seven intervention demonstrated a significant reduction in HbA1c, ranged from 0.36 to 0.80%. All interventions presented an improvement in at least one self-management behavior.
Discussion and conclusion: Patient activation intervention showed a significant positive effect on T2DM glycemic control and SMBs, particularly physical activity, healthy diet, foot care and blood glucose self-monitoring. The effectiveness on SMBs was seen across different intervention strategies, modes of delivery, length of intervention, and number of providers. Better effectiveness on HbA1c was associated with poorly controlled participants, culturally tailored-intervention, and in-person sessions intervention combined with telephone calls follow up.