Publication Details

Baker, A. (2013). Integrating fluent pronunciation use into content-based ESL instruction: Two case studies. In J. Levis & K. Levelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference (pp. 245-254). Ames, United States: Iowa State University.


This paper examines the teaching practices of two ESL teachers who integrated pronunciation instruction into intermediate-level, content/task-based, oral communication courses in an Intensive English program. These practices are analysed according to five categories of pronunciation instruction: Language Awareness; Controlled Practice; Guided Practice, Fluency Development and Free Practice. The fourth category, Fluency Development, is defined based on the work of Nation and Newton (2009), who list, among several criteria, pressure to perform at greater speeds or at least "more smoothly" as central to improving learner fluency. Based on classroom observations, interviews with teachers and student questionnaires, the degree to which the teachers integrated pronunciation according to each of these five categories is investigated. Findings demonstrated that systematic integration of pronunciation instruction into content-based curriculum can be problematic in general and that specific focus on fluency development seems to receive relatively little attention in the classroom. Preliminary recommendations for enhancing systematic pronunciation integration and increasing pronunciation fluency development into curriculum are provided .