Human engagements with nature are expressed through an extensive range of cultural forms that are dynamic, complex and often defy singular logics and ethical approaches. Whether traditional or modern, biocentric or utilitarian, societies continue these engagements along several axes that include but are not limited to protection, veneration, killing and subjugation. The Indian scenario too is an equally diverse one. Its wide array of human communities celebrate an equally vast variety of close engagements with species that range from reverence to destruction. However, being the second most populous nation with one of the fastest growing economies on the planet, India faces significant environmental concerns and is at an important juncture in thinking about sustainability.