Packaged food and beverages are commonly used hospital environments for single serve portion control, convenience and cost savings (Rechbauer 2013). Older adults occupy almost half of Australian hospital beds and this percentage will increase with the corresponding ageing of the general population (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2017). The provision of packaged hospital food service to these older adults is relevant as researchers have estimated that 40% of UK hospital patients were malnourished with 60% at risk, with the. . .' average food intake less than 75% of that recommended, particularly among the elderly' (Schenker 2003). In fact, studies have shown that older patients are five times more likely to be at risk of malnutrition than younger patients (Lazarus 2005, Banks 2007, Vivanti 2008).