Convergent and construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Caen Chronotype Questionnaire in six languages
Chronotype questionnaires provide a simple and time-effective approach to assessing individual differences in circadian variations. Chronotype questionnaires traditionally focused on one dimension of chronotype, namely its orientation along a continuum of morningness and eveningness. The Caen Chronotype Questionnaire (CCQ) was developed to assess an additional dimension of chronotype that captures the extent to which individual functioning varies during the day (amplitude). The aim of this study was to provide a multilanguage validation of the CCQ in six world regions (Arabic, Dutch, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish).