Longitudinal association between ideal cardiovascular health status and muscular fitness in adolescents: The LabMed Physical Activity Study
Background and aims: Muscular ﬁtn ess is an emergin g predictor for cardiovasculardisease mortality. The ideal cardiovascular health metrics has been inversely related to a subse-quent cardiometabolic health in adulthood. However, evidence regarding muscular ﬁtness andideal cardiovascular health in adolescents is scarce. This study aimed to examine the longitudinalassociation between ideal cardiovascular health index and muscular ﬁtness.Methods and results: This study cohort consisted of 331 adolescents (183 girls) from the LabMedPhysical Activity Study who were followed from 2011 to 2013. Ideal cardiovascular health, asdeﬁned by the American Heart Association, was determined as meeting ideal health factors (totalcholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose) and behaviors (smoking status, body mass index, phys-ical activity, and diet). Handgrip strength and standing long jump tests assessed muscular ﬁtnessand were transformed into standardized values according to age and sex. ANCOVA showed a sig-niﬁcant association between the accumulation of ideal cardiovascular health metrics at baselineand muscular ﬁtness indices at follow-up (F(4, 322)Z 2.280, p Z 0.04). In addition, the higher thenumber of ideal cardiovascular health metrics accumulated, the higher the likelihood of having ahigh muscular ﬁtness over a two-year period (p for trend Z 0.01), after adjustments for age, sex,pubertal stage and socioeconomic status and muscular ﬁtness at baseline.Conclusion: The ideal cardiovascular health status during adolescence was associated with highmuscular ﬁtness levels over a two-year period.