A Review of Scientific Progress in Flow in Sport and Exercise: Normal Science, Crisis, and a Progressive Shift
2018, Copyright Association for Applied Sport Psychology. Flow is highly relevant and desirable in sport and exercise. Drawing on ideas from iconic philosophers of science-Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper, and Imre Lakatos-we argue that research in this field has followed a pattern of "normal science." With a series of accumulating criticisms and "anomalies," we propose flow research is approaching a "crisis point." We highlight problems with research based on the traditional nine-dimensions conceptualization of flow. Then, drawing on the work of Popper and Lakatos, we offer theoretical and methodological suggestions for developing a more progressive and practically useful theory for researchers and practitioners.