Muscular fitness, Southern European Atlantic Diet and inflammation in adolescents. Azorean Physical Activity and Health Study II
High muscular fitness (MF) and high adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet (the SEADiet) have been associated with several positive metabolic outcomes. The purpose of the present study was two-fold: (i) to explore the independent associations between MF and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; and (ii) to investigate the combined impact of MF and SEADiet on the CRP levels in a sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 463 adolescents (272 girls) aged 15-18 years, from the Portuguese Azorean Archipelago. Anthropometric indicators (stature, body mass, waist circumference (WC)) were measured by standardized protocols and pubertal stages were assessed by Tanner criteria. Blood samples were taken after an overnight fast. MF was assessed by the curl-up and push-up tests (from the Fitnessgram test battery). Adherence to the SEADiet was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models showed that MF was inversely associated with hs-CRP (unstandardized B = −0.127; p < .009), after adjustments for age, sex, and pubertal stage, adherence of SEADiet, total energy intake and low-energy reporter and WC. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference between the low adherence of SEADiet with low MF group and those with a high adherence of SEADiet and high MF (p < .05) (F (5, 453) = 2.238, p = .040). Our results showed that MF is inversely associated with hs-CRP. In addition, the adolescents with Low adherence of SEADiet/Low MF group had high levels of hs-CRP compared those who with high adherence of SEADiet/high MF group.