Brief assessment of schizotypal traits: A multinational study



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Fonseca-Pedrero, E., Ortuno-Sierra, J., Lucas-Molina, B., Debbane, M., Chan, R., Cicero, D., Zhang, L., Brenner, C., Barkus, E., Linscott, R., Kwapil, T., Barrantes-Vidal, N., Cohen, A., Raine, A., Compton, M., Tone, E. B., Suhr, J., Bobes, J., Fumero, A., Giakoumaki, S., Tsaousis, I., Preti, A., Chmielewski, M., Laloyaux, J., Mechri, A., Lahmar, M., Wuthrich, V., Laroi, F., Badcock, J., Jablensky, A., Barron, D., Swami, V., Tran, U. & Voracek, M. (2018). Brief assessment of schizotypal traits: A multinational study. Schizophrenia Research, 197 182-191.


The Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) was developed with the aim of examining variations in healthy trait schizotypy, as well as latent vulnerability to psychotic-spectrum disorders. No previous study has studied the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B in a large cross-national sample. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the reliability and the internal structure of SPQ-B scores in a multinational sample of 28,426 participants recruited from 14 countries. The mean age was 22.63. years (SD = 7.08; range 16-68. years), 37.7% (n = 10,711) were men. The omega coefficients were high, ranging from 0.86 to 0.92 for the total sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that SPQ-B items were grouped either in a theoretical structure of three first-order factors (Cognitive-Perceptual, Interpersonal, and Disorganized) or in a bifactor model (three first-order factors plus a general factor of schizotypal personality). In addition, the results supported configural but not strong measurement invariance of SPQ-B scores across samples. These findings provide new information about the factor structure of schizotypal personality, and support the validity and utility of the SPQ-B, a brief and easy tool for assessing self-reported schizotypal traits, in cross-national research. Theoretical and clinical implications for diagnostic systems, psychosis models, and cross-national mental health strategies are derived from these results.

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