The Pacific region is a constellation of islands of varying sizes. Australia (the island continent) and Aotearoa/New Zealand (now carrying both Maori and Pakeha, or settler, names) dominate the region geographically and economically. However, many smaller islands are found in those vast realms of the Pacific Ocean known as Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Socially, politically, economically, and biophysically, this is a diverse region with diverse cities. In this part of the world, it is easiest to understand cities as forming two main groups: those of Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand, and those of the Pacific Islands.